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Industrial Las Animas, C. Clinical analyses of Procyonidae groups are extremely limited. The aim of this work was to obtain gender baseline data on the blood chemistry and hematological values of Nasua narica, in conditions of semi-freedom.
For this, 14 males adults and 30 females adults were sedated with ketamine hydrochloride and captured. The blood was collected from the femoral artery, and conventional techniques were used to analyze the samples.
Males showed statistical differences in hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocytes, compared to females. The females on the other hand having higher platelet counts than the males. For blood chemistry, the females showed higher concentrations of magnesium compared with the males.
These results could be useful as reference values for adult individuals of Nasua narica, in order to develop future criteria regarding the health-disease processes of this species.
Key words: Nasua narica, biometry, serum biochemistry, reference values, male, female. Para esto, 14 machos y 30 hembras adultos fueron sedados con hidrocloruro de ketamina y capturados. Understand and investigate the diseases of free-living individuals are vital aspects in management wildlife programs.
Also the need to conserve several wild animal species in semi-free-range has attracted attention to the potential transmission of infectious microorganisms, their impact on the health of individuals and groups of the wild animals and their effect on conservation programs Russel Animals kept in captivity or bred in semi-free-range areas, such as zoological gardens or parks may become infected with pathogens in their enclosures Taema et al.
It is therefore fundamental to know the health conditions of captive animals in order to guarantee their wellbeing Wirz et al. A method for determining animal health is blood sampling and analysis. In fact, the constituents of blood as well as many of the chemicals it carries provide fundamental information for medical diagnosis of disease Morrison ; Moore ; Wirz et al.
For some animal species, standard values of hematological variables are well defined. However concerning the Procyonidae, published date have often been based on few species, on small numbers of individuals, or derived from a single sample per animal, or reported values combined for all age groups or both sex or infected with a parasite.
The white-nosed coati Nasua narica is a Carnivore with great plasticity of behavior, which is an important factor in the success of the species within its wide geographical distribution, which extends from northeastern Colombia to southern Arizona and New Mexico Gompper In Mexico, in particular, it is mainly distributed in the tropical forests of both oceanic slopes Valenzuela When fruits are scarce, however, it is reported that bands focus more on leaf -litter fauna and the males forage for larger prey, among which are some small vertebrates Smythe ; Rusell ; ; Moreover, in captivity the coati's diet is modified and may include almost any kind of food.
The objective of present study is to establish reference values for biometric and blood chemistry in male and female adults of Nasua narica in semi-free conditions. These parameters will be critical in implementing conservation and management programs for this species, because will be used as reference to compare such values with other populations in the wild and in captivity. This is very important as will help us to detect and also, develop strategies in order to solve health problems with the aim to contribute to the conservation and survival of this species.
Geographical location. The individuals in this study are located in Museum Park "La Venta", a protected natural area of the state government of Tabasco, where eco-tourism is being developed.
The lower middle stratum has trees 12 to 15 m in height. In the lower strata there are abundant herbaceous plants and thorny shrubs 2 to 8 m high. Mangifera indica and Pouteria sapota were recorded in the diet of the coatis in this area Fuentes-Anaya in preparation. In addition, daily eggs, bread, oatmeal and bananas are provided for them. Anesthesia and Capture. During the period from November 30 to December 2, , 44 adult individuals were captured within the park: 30 females and 14 males.
Each individual was sedated by using a 3-ml syringe and darts made with 3x32mm needles, which were fired through a blowgun, approximately two to five meters from the trigger.
Guadalajara, Jal. After the last blood sampling, each was placed temporarily in an individual cage until complete recovery from the anesthesia. Thereafter, they were returned to the site of capture and observed until they rejoined their social group. Blood Sampling. Each blood sample was then split into various fractions as follows:.
Hematic biometry. For hematic biometry, 0. This was mixed gently and maintained at ambient temperature in continuous agitation for 30 minutes. Serum biochemistry. This was centrifuged at 1, g for 10 min. The hemolyzed, icteric or lipemic samples were discarded to avoid analytical interferences. Statistical analyses. The Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test was applied to these data to establish whether the distribution was normal. Moreover was performed a Pearson correlation between the weight of individuals and hematology and blood chemistry values was made.
This shows the mean, standard deviation and range values of each hematological parameter for males and females. Serum Biochemistry. The other parameters showed no significant differences between the genders Table 2.
The results of blood counts between genders showed that the females were found to have lower values than the males in three parameters hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cells ; this may be due to the sexual dimorphism presented, which is consistent with other reports on mammals Samonds et al.
When comparing these three parameters with those reported for Nasua nasua by Sampaio et al. However with respect to that reported by Pimentel , cited by Silva et al. Regarding the white blood cell values, we found a lower concentration of these in respect to Nasua nasua in both conditions. These results allow us to suggest that our individuals are not sick Silva et al. On the other hand, we must take into account that there may be large variations in the blood levels of wild populations in regard to both intrinsic inflammatory responses, immunological investment, aerobic capacity and extrinsic factors environmental and host factors - Beldomenico et al.
In regard to platelet count, we found that females showed a greater number of them compared to males. Platelets play an important role in the response to vascular damage and are also involved in the inflammatory response Roitt et al.
We suggest that this difference is probably related to the greater social activity presented by females, as observed in the bands that they form Gommper ; Valenzuela, they also have greater individual interactions during coalitions periods with the young Hirsch ; Fuentes-Anaya, in preparation.
However, our sampling was carried outside this reproductive period Gommper The same range applies to the values for the coatis. As to the statistical difference in the concentration of creatinine, this may be related to the body mass of individuals, its concentration being the result of muscle metabolism Morrison In general, all values in hematology and blood chemistry reported in this study, were within the ranges shown in the ISIS database.
The differences in minimum and maximum values of blood cells, is likely due to ISIS values include analysis of young individuals, while our results only represent adult organisms. It is important to note that most of the reports on the hematological values in different species of Procyonidae are made using individuals in captivity, either because they are subject to investigation or enclosed in zoos.
To our knowledge this is the first report for blood test in Nasua narica under semi-freedom conditions in Southeastern of Mexico, and our findings underline the differences between genders in hematology test and blood chemistry.
Therefore, our results could be useful as reference values for adult individuals of Nasua narica, in order to develop future criteria regarding the health-disease processes of this species. The authors would like to thank all the individuals who helped to collect samples for this project and whose contribution was essential to its success. We thank Dr. The authors O.
M and T. Abouheif, E. Comparative analysis of allometry for sexual size dimorphism: Assessing rensch's rule. The American Naturalist, Beldomenico, P. Telfer, S. Gebert, L. Lukomski, M. The dynamics of health in wild field vole populations: a haematological perspective. Journal of Animal Ecology, Capello, G. Gobierno del Estado de Tabasco. Emms, H. Sex and hormonal influences on platelets sensitivity and coagulation in the rat.
British Journal of Pharmacology, Evans, R. Raccoons and Relatives Carnivora, Procyinidae. In: D Heard Ed. Zoological Restraint and Anesthesia. International Veterinary Information Service. Ithaca, New York. Flaiban, K K. Spohr, L. Malanski, W. K Svoboda, M. Shizawa, C. Hilst, L.