ANNA TROSBORG TEXT TYPOLOGY AND TRANSLATION PDF

Excerps from Anna Trosbor. Text Typology and Translation : John Benjamins. Which categories can be used to classify and explain ways in which types of discourse may be accounted for? Terminological problems concerning the distinction of text, discourse, register, genre, text type, discourse purpose, communicative purpose, rhetorical purpose and communicative function will be dealt with.

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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Farnaz Youssefi. We may distinguish be- tween political texts, legal texts and medical texts; fairy tales, novels and short stories differ from newspaper reports, essays, and scientific papers; food re- cipes, instructions booklets and advertisements may show similarities but they are not the same, expository texts differ from argumentative texts, etc.

All these types of text differ in ways that are somewhat obvious, intuitively, but which nevertheless invite detailed analysis. The development in the fields of language and linguistics, communication and rhetoric, the ethnography of speaking, pragmatics and discourse, etc. Throughout the last decade, genre analysis, in particular, has enjoyed immense popularity. This field of study has attracted the attention of literary scholars, rhetoricians, soci- ologists, discourse analysts, cognitive scientists, machine translators, computa- tional linguists, ESP specialists, business communication experts, language teachers a.

This popularity does not mean, however, that there is a general consensus on the meaning of the term. A number of questions prevail. How do genres re- late to register and text types? How is one genre to be identified and distin- guished from other genres?

Are the defining criteria text-internal, or is the clas- sification based on text-external criteria, or both? Do we need uni-criterial or multi-criterial classification systems? What are the characteristics of specific genres? Do these characteristics differ cross-culturally and if so in what ways? Besides, our knowledge of specific genres still leaves much to be desired.

Terminological -problerms and considerations, comprising notions municative situations and events is now fairly widely recognized as a proper such as text and discourse, register, genre, and text type, discourse purpose, goal of linguistic analysis.

No Two sets of insights from anthropology and linguistics have been particular- pretense to an exhaustive coverage-is suggested in this brief outline,'of course. Malinowsky's theory of context was originally developed with municative function and text type as crucial categories within a discourse the translator in mind. Faced with the task of portraying remote cultures, he be- framework of field, tenor and mode will be suggested. This framework forms came increasingly concerned with the context of situation in order to truly con- guidelines for identifying and generating Conventions and functions of lan- vey cultural insights.

Malinowsky -believed that the cultural context, com- guage and the implications for translating is discussed. The insights of Firth relate to culture as determining our world of language Text and discourse and cognition. Cultural factors influence and determine linguistic choices. This view of language was built on the views of Malinowsky and emphasized situa- For some scholars, text refers to written language and discourse to spoken lan- tion and culture. The contextual factors outlined were those components of guage.

For others, texts may be spoken or written, and they may involve one or speech events referred to in the ethnography of speaking research, i. Virtanen Halliday and Hasan and speaker-hearer role relationship, channel, genre, key. Bauman and Quirk et al. Grimes and Sinclair and Scherzer Coulthard and their followers deal with discourse. Do these scholars The finding that language varies with its function led to descriptions of "va- refer to the same thing, albeit the difference in their use of terminology?

A rieties" of language use referred to as registers Reid , Halliday, McIntosh study of the various uses of text and discourse in the literature during the past and Strevens A framework devised by Halliday, McIntosh and Strevens two decades traced by Virtanen highlights this problem. User-related varieties com- different but complementary perspectives on language. In line with these two ap- registers comprise an open-ended set of varieties or styles of language proaches, text has often been used of a static concept - the product of a typical of occupational fields, such as the language of religion, the language of process - while discourse has been used to refer to a dynamic notion - the legal documents, the language of newspaper reporting, medical language, process of text production and text comprehension Virtanen Seen within this situational features" Gregory and Carroll 4.

Sub-codes of a particular development, it seems rather arbitrary today to maintain a strict boundary be- language were distinguished on the basis of the frequency of lexico- tween text linguistics and discourse analysis. As a result, the two separate grammatical features of a particular text-variety see, e.

Crystal and Davy terms text and discourse may be used interchangeably - that is if no definition , Gregory and Carroll Studies on the frequencies of syntactic to the contrary h as been proposed? Studies to investigate the relationship between grammatical choices and Register rhetorical functions i. Lackstrom, Selinker and Trimble The concept of a "whole language" is so vast and heterogeneous that it is not , Swales , Trimble An interesting finding was how operationally useful for many linguistic purposes, and the description of com- specific linguistic features take on restricted values in the structuring of scientific communication.

A recognition that it is often the collocation of two or more by Bhatia 17 , for example, a science research article is as legitimate an lexical items, rather than the occurrence of isolated items that determines the instance of scientific English as is an extract from a chemistry lab report.

Aca- identity of a given register was another major finding. The factors which affect these choices be- arly papers, books Bhatia The legal register may comprise the came the focus of attention: language of the law in legal documents legislative texts, contracts, deeds, wills , the language of the courtroom e. When we observe language activity in the various contexts in books, and various types of lawyers' communication with other lawyers and which it takes place, we find differences in the type of language selected with laymen Trosborg 4.

Only in the case of restricted registers is as appropriate to different types of situation. Halliday et al. The question is what is meant by different types of situation. Focusing mainly on Because it is impossible for us to dwell in the social world without the language of a particular field language of scientific reporting, language of repertoires of typified social responses in recurrent situations - from newspaper reporting, bureaucratic language, legal language, etc.

Berkenkotter and Huckin 7 such terms can now be seen to be systematically misleading. They overprivi- lege a homogeneity of content at the expense of variation in communicative A comprehensive study of genres by Swales analyses the development purpose, addresser-addressee relationships, and genre conventions Swales of the concept of genre in the fields of folklore studies, literature, linguistics 3. While it remains necessary to use texts in order to understand how and rhetoric see Swales Genre analysis has a long established - texts organize themselves informationally, rhetorically and stylistically, textual tradition in literary studies.

It dates back to Aristotle, who distinguished genres knowledge remains generally insufficient for a full account of genre. To further as classes of texts, a view which still prevails. Webster's Third Dictionary is quite easily used to refer to a distinctive cate- gory of discourse of any type, spoken or written, with or without literary aspi- rations.

Genre However, within linguistics, few studies have distinguished register from genre. Swales points to register as a well-established and central concept in lin- Genres are the text categories readily distinguished by mature speakers of a guistics, while genre is described as "a recent appendage found to be language, and we may even talk about a "folk typology" of genres.

Texts used necessary as a result of important studies of text structure". An newpaper article, a radio play, an advertisement, etc. Such categories are re- unwillingness to demote register to a second position strengthened by large- ferred to as genres. How can one genre, with emphasis on the recurrence of similar forms together in genre be distinguished from another? These and similar problems have been a constellation in genre creation.

Recently, rhetorical studies of genre have scholarly concern for the last decade. For some scholars, genres are defined focused more on the social dynamics and social constitution of nonliterary primarily on the basis of external criteria; newspaper articles are found in the forms of writing and speaking.

With the work during the s in the fields of news sections of newspapers, academic articles. His Recognizing the dynamic aspect of genres amenable to changes , analysis focuses on genre as a class of communicative events, and the principal researchers now busy, themselves with establishing genres of specialized criterial feature that turns a collection of communicative events into a genre is language.

Defining speech events in a community has become crucial; there is some shared set of communicative purposes. Exemplars or instances of genres an interest in discovering in a community which communications are vary in their prototypicality with the discourse community's nomenclature for generically typed and what labels are used, in order to reveal elements of genres as an important source of insight see Swales Crucial fac- verbal behaviour which the community considers sociolinguistically salient.

SaviIle- tive purpose. It is communicative purpose that drives the Ianguage activities of Troike It is basic to ethnography that the units used for segmenting, the discourse community; it is communicative purpose that is the prototypical ordering and describing data should be the categories of the community and not criterion for genre identity, and it is communicative purpose that operates as a priori categories of the investigator Saville-Troike The procedure the primary determinant of task Swales Bhatia following Swales , , labels plays a central role.

Tod- pose s that it is intended to fulfil. It is this shared set of communicative pur- orov and Fowler to the effect that genres are not simply as- pose s which shapes the genre and gives it an internal structure, and a major semblies of more-or-less similar textual objects but, instead they are coded and change in the communicative purpose s is likely to result in a change of genre, keyed events set within social communicative processes.

Recognizing those while minor changes or modifications are likely to be distinctive of sub-genres, codes and keys can be a powerful facilitator of both comprehension, composi- even though it is not possible to draw a fine distinction between genres and tion and translation. Similarly, Miller argues that "a rhetorically sound definition of A further point to be stressed is that genres are meant not so much to clas- genre must be centred not on the substance or form of the discourse but on the sify but to clarify and explain the rationale of social behaviour cf.

Martin considers genres to em- The concept of genre as social action, one situated in a wider brace each of the linguistically realized activity types which comprise so much sociorhetorical context operates not only as a mechanism for reaching com- of our culture. Genre is recognized as a system for accomplishing social pur- municative goals but also as a means of clarifying what these goals might be poses by verbal means.

Genre "refers to the staged purposeful social processes Swales Furthermore, genre specifies conditions for be- and a feature article in a newspaper. Factors relating to mode including chan- ginning, structuring and ending a text, for which reason genres, unlike regis- nel and nature of participation and tenor of discourse including the status and ters, can only be realized in completed texts see Couture. Acknowledging these points, a description of genre in its own to be used in the two genres.

In cases like these, where the communicative right, independent of a subordination to a particular register, is needed. For Bhatia, the use of this criterion leads to the classification In agreement with the stand taken by Swales, Bhatia takes genre analysis of advertisements and job applications as belonging to the same genre: to pro- from linguistic description to explanation.

He has emphasized the importance mote the value of something, be it an article or a person. His aim is to find answers to which purpose is unsuited as a primary criterion, for example poetic genres the question "Why do members of a specialist community write the way they aimed at giving verbal pleasure defy ascription of communicative purpose.

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Text Typology and Translation

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Text Typology and Translation. This book breaks new ground in translation theory and practice. The central question is: In what ways are translations affected by text types? The two main areas of investigation are: A.

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