Active view current version of standard. Other Historical Standards. More E They are nondestructive testing methods for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and are applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. They can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or fully densified ceramics, certain nonporous plastics, and glass. Agreement by the user and the supplier regarding specific techniques is strongly recommended.
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A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Scope 2. Referenced Documents 1. They are nondestructive testing meth- D Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products Gen- ods for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface eral Bomb Method 3 such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, through D Test Method for Sulfate Ion in Water4 leaks, or lack of fusion and are applicable to in-process, final, D Test Method for Chlorine in New and Used Petro- and maintenance examination.
They can be effectively used in leum Products Bomb Method 3 the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, both ferrous D Specification for Reagent Water4 and nonferrous, and of nonmetallic materials such as glazed or D Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products fully densified ceramics, certain nonporous plastics, and glass.
High-Temperature Method 3 1. Agreement by the user and the supplier regarding E Test Method for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Ex- specific techniques is strongly recommended.
It should be pointed out, E Test Method for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Ex- however, that after indications have been produced, they must amination Using the Hydrophilic Post-Emulsification Pro- be interpreted or classified and then evaluated. For this purpose cess5 there must be a separate code or specification or a specific E Test Method for Fluorescent Liquid Penetrant Ex- agreement to define the type, size, location, and direction of amination Using the Solvent-Removable Process5 indications considered acceptable, and those considered unac- E Test Method for Visible Penetrant Examination ceptable.
Using the Solvent-Removable Process5 1. SI units are provided for information only. It is the 2. Published April Last previous edition E — Terminology 3. Summary of Test Method be seen in visible light. The penetrant is usually red, so that the 4.
The visible penetrant process does not and allowed to enter open discontinuities. After a suitable require the use of black light. However, visible penetrant dwell time, the excess surface penetrant is removed. A devel- indications must be viewed under adequate white light see oper is applied to draw the entrapped penetrant out of the 8. The test surface is then examined to determine the presence or absence of indications.
A a visible penetrant examination unless the procedure has been qualified in family of liquid penetrant examination materials consists of the accordance with Intermixing of penetrants and 4.
Significance and Use 7. Each of the various alone. They are designed to be selectively removed from the methods has been designed for specific uses such as critical surface using a separate emulsifier.
The emulsifier, properly service items, volume of parts, portability or localized areas of applied and given a proper emulsification time, combines with examination. The method selected will depend accordingly on the excess surface penetrant to form a water-washable mixture, the service requirements.
Proper emulsification time must be 6. Classification of Penetrations and Methods experimentally established and maintained to ensure that 6. The sensitivity of fluorescent penetrants depends on suitable penetrant dwell time. Fluorescent indi- penetrant to ensure against overwashing. Water-washable pen- etrants can be washed out of discontinuities if the rinsing step is too long or too vigorous. Some penetrants are less resistant 7 to overwashing than others.
To surface of the part. Certain types of film developer may be minimize removal of penetrant from discontinuities, care stripped from the part and retained for record purposes see should be taken to avoid the use of excess solvent. Flushing the 8.
Procedure 7. The rate of diffusion establishes 8. Where it is not practical also the surface roughness of the area being examined see to comply with these temperature limitations, qualify the 8.
Satisfactory results usually may be obtained on surfaces in the These water-base emulsifiers detergent-type removers are as-welded, as-rolled, as-cast, or as-forged conditions or for supplied as concentrates to be diluted with water and used as a ceramics in the densified conditions.
Sensitive penetrants are dip or spray. When only loose surface residuals are 7. However, precleaning of metals to remove processing detergent action. Surface surface. The emulsification time will vary, depending on its conditioning by grinding, machining, polishing or etching shall concentration, which can be monitored by the use of a suitable follow shot, sand, grit or vapor blasting to remove the peened refractometer. For metals, unless otherwise specified, etching shall be per- 7.
See increasing the visibility of the indications. Care should be taken not to contaminate the developer with NOTE 8—Caution: Sand or shot blasting may possibly close disconti- fluorescent penetrant, as the penetrant specks can appear as nuities and extreme care should be used with grinding and machining indications.
The concentration, use and maintenance shall be in recommended because of the potential for damage. The procedure should be tion procedure is greatly dependent upon the surrounding qualified in accordance with All sions of developer particles in a nonaqueous solvent carrier parts or areas of parts to be examined must be clean and dry ready for use as supplied. Nonaqueous, wet developers form a before the penetrant is applied.
If only a section of a part, such coating on the surface of the part when dried, which serves as as a weld, including the heat affected zone is to be examined, the developing medium see 8. These contaminants can prevent the penetrant from entering discon- developers will form a transparent or translucent coating on the tinuities see Annex on Cleaning of Parts and Materials. Small parts are quite often placed in 8. On larger of parts be thoroughly dry after cleaning, since any liquid parts, and those with complex geometries, penetrant can be residue will hinder the entrance of the penetrant.
Drying may applied effectively by brushing or spraying. Both conventional be accomplished by warming the parts in drying ovens, with and electrostatic spray guns are effective means of applying infrared lamps, forced hot air, or exposure to ambient tempera- liquid penetrants to the part surfaces. Electrostatic spray ture. Aerosol sprays are conveniently portable and proper penetration should be as recommended by the penetrant suitable for local application.
Table 2, however, provides a guide for selection of penetrant dwell times for a variety of materials, forms, and NOTE 11—Caution: Not all penetrant materials are suitable for elec- trostatic spray applications, so tests should be conducted prior to use. Unless otherwise specified, the dwell NOTE 12—Warning: With spray applications, it is important that there time shall not exceed the maximum recommended by the be proper ventilation.
This is generally accomplished through the use of a manufacturer. NOTE 13—For some specific applications in structural ceramics for 8.
The 8. B Maximum penetrant dwell time in accordance with 8. C Development time begins as soon as wet developer coating has dried on surface of parts recommended minimum. Maximum development time in accordance with 8. The penetration time, the excess penetrant on the surface being actual emulsification time must be determined experimentally examined must be removed with water, usually a washing for each specific application.
The surface finish roughness of operation. It can be washed off manually, by the use of the part is a significant factor in the selection of and in the automatic or semi-automatic water-spray equipment or by emulsification time of an emulsifier.
Contact time should be immersion. For immersion rinsing, parts are completely im- kept to the least possible time consistent with an acceptable mersed in the water bath with air or mechanical agitation. If the final rinse step is not effective, as 8.
The time and temperature should be kept constant. Caution: A touch-up rinse may be penetrant to be washed out of discontinuities. With fluorescent penetrant necessary after immersion. After application of the emulsifier, the parts are drained in 8. This step allows for the emulsifier has been applied. The length of time that the removal of excess surface penetrant from the parts prior to emulsifier is allowed to remain on a part and in contact with the emulsification so as to minimize the degree of penetrant penetrant is dependent on the type of emulsifier employed and contamination in the hydrophilic emulsifier bath, thereby the surface condition smooth or rough.
Nominal emulsifica- extending its life. This is accomplished by collecting the automated water immersion or spray equipment or combina- prerinsings in a holding tank, separating the penetrant from tions thereof. Caution: A touch-up rinse may be necessary after immersion. Wash time is to be as specified by the part b Spray rinse water pressure should not exceed 40 psi or material specification. The hydrophilic repeating the operation until most traces of penetrant have been emulsifier should be gently agitated throughout the contact removed.
Then using a lint-free material lightly moistened with cycle. Avoid the use of manufacturer. Nominal use concentration for immersion appli- excess solvent.
Astm E 165 – 02 pdf free download
ASTM D ASTM A ASTM D a. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. Scope 1.
ASTM E 165 - 02 .pdf
Designation: E — An American National Standard. Standard Test Method for. Liquid Penetrant Examination 1. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. They are nondestructive testing meth- ods for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, through.
Penetrant testing is a nondestructive testing method for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, shrinkage, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and is applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examinations. It can be effectively used in the examination of nonporous, metallic materials, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and of nonmetallic materials such as nonporous glazed or fully densified ceramics, as well as certain nonporous plastics, and glass. Agreement by the customer requesting penetrant testing is strongly recommended. All areas of this practice may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. It should be pointed out, however, that after indications have been found, they must be interpreted or classified and then evaluated.
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