The medications used for the treatment of pinworm are either mebendazole, pyrantel pamoate, or albendazole. Any of these drugs are given in one dose initially, and then another single dose of the same drug two weeks later. Pyrantel pamoate is available without prescription. The medication does not reliably kill pinworm eggs. Therefore, the second dose is to prevent re-infection by adult worms that hatch from any eggs not killed by the first treatment.
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Enterobiasis is an intestinal infestation by the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis , usually in children. Its major symptom is perianal itching. Diagnosis is by visual inspection for threadlike worms in the perianal area or the cellophane tape test for ova.
Treatment is with mebendazole , pyrantel pamoate , or albendazole. See also Approach to Parasitic Infections. Pinworm infestation is the most common helminthic infection in the United States. Most cases occur in school-aged children, adults who care for children, or family members of an infected child.
Pinworm infestation usually results from transfer of ova from the perianal area to fomites clothing, bedding, furniture, rugs, toys, toilet seats , from which the ova are picked up by the new host, transmitted to the mouth, and swallowed. Thumb sucking is a risk factor. Reinfestation autoinfestation easily occurs through finger transfer of ova from the perianal area to the mouth. Pinworm infections have also been attributed to anilingus among adults. Pinworms reach maturity in the lower gastrointestinal tract within 2 to 6 weeks.
The female worm migrates out of the anus to the perianal region usually at night to deposit ova. The sticky, gelatinous substance in which the ova are deposited and the movements of the female worm cause perianal pruritus.
The ova can survive on fomites as long as 3 weeks at normal room temperature. Most infected people have no symptoms or signs, but some experience perianal pruritus and develop perianal excoriations from scratching. Secondary bacterial skin infection may occur. Rarely, migrating female worms ascend the human female genital tract, causing vaginitis and, even less commonly, peritoneal lesions. Many other conditions eg, abdominal pain, insomnia, seizures have been attributed to pinworm infestation, but a causal relationship is unlikely.
Pinworms have been found obstructing the appendiceal lumen in cases of appendicitis, but the presence of the parasites may be coincidental. Pinworm infestation can be diagnosed by finding the female worm, which is 8 to 13 mm long males are 2 to 5 mm , in the perianal region 1 or 2 hours after a child goes to bed at night or in the morning or by using a low-power microscope to identify ova on cellophane tape.
The ova are obtained in the early morning before the child arises by patting the perianal skinfolds with a strip of cellophane tape, which is then placed sticky side down on a glass slide and viewed microscopically. The by micron ova are oval with a thin shell that contains a curled-up larva. A drop of toluene placed between tape and slide dissolves the adhesive and eliminates air bubbles under the tape, which can hamper identification of the ova.
This procedure should be repeated on 3 successive mornings if necessary. On occasion, the diagnosis can be made by examining samples taken from under the patient's fingernails.
Mebendazole , pyrantel pamoate , or albendazole. Because pinworm infestation is seldom harmful, prevalence is high, and reinfestation is common, treatment is indicated only for symptomatic infections.
However, most parents actively seek treatment when their children have pinworms. Carbolated petrolatum ie, containing carbolic acid or other antipruritic creams or ointments applied to the perianal region may relieve itching. Pinworm reinfestation is common because viable ova may be excreted for 1 week after therapy, and ova deposited in the environment before therapy can survive 3 weeks. Multiple infestations within the household are common, and treatment of the entire family may be necessary.
Washing the hands with soap and warm water after using the toilet, after changing diapers, and before handling food the most successful way. Pinworm infestation is the most common helminthic infection in the United States; most cases occur in school-aged children, in adults who care for children, or in family members of an infected child.
Pinworm eggs may be ingested when people touch their mouth after they scratch their perianal area or after they handle contaminated clothes or other objects eg, bed linens. Diagnose pinworm infestation by collecting ova in the morning on cellophane tape and using a low-power microscope to identify them; diagnosis can also be made by finding the female worm in the perianal region 1 or 2 hours after a child goes to bed at night.
If patients have symptomatic infections, treat with mebendazole , pyrantel pamoate , or albendazole. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world.
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Common Health Topics. Videos Figures Images Quizzes. Symptoms and Signs. Key Points. Nematodes Roundworms. Test your knowledge. Because of worldwide vaccination, the current threat of a smallpox outbreak is most likely to come from which of the following? More Content. Click here for Patient Education. Examination of the perianal region for worms, ova, or both.
Eggs may also be encountered, but less frequently, in stool, urine, or vaginal smears. Mebendazole mg orally regardless of age. Albendazole mg orally. If people are infected, showering every morning to help remove eggs on the skin. Pinworm infestation is seldom harmful, and reinfestation is common. Most infected people have no symptoms or signs, but some experience perianal pruritus. Was This Page Helpful? Yes No. Overview of Lyme Disease. Add to Any Platform.
Pinworm infection , also known as enterobiasis , is a human parasitic disease caused by the pinworm. The disease is spread between people by pinworm eggs. Treatment is typically with two doses of the medications mebendazole , pyrantel pamoate , or albendazole two weeks apart. Pinworm infections commonly occur in all parts of the world. One-third of individuals with pinworm infection are totally asymptomatic.
The Diagnosis and Treatment of Pinworm Infection
Enterobiasis oxyuriasis is probably the most common helminth, which infects humans. Amongst different age groups, prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in children is high compared to adults. Oxyuriasis is one of the most significant parasitic diseases of children. This nematode in children can result in loss of appetite, insomnia, grinding of the teeth, restlessness, endometritis, abdominal cramps, diarrhea and etc. Due to important complications of this parasite, the objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence of enterobiasis in kindergarten and preschool children of Amol, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. A total number of children from 32 kindergartens of Amol were examined for the prevalence of E. Adhesive cello-tape anal swab method was trained to parents for sampling.