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Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Extra nuclear inheritance 1. Cytoplasmic inheritance??? Extranuclear inheritance or cytoplasmic inheritance is the transmission of genes that occur outside the nucleus.
OR A form of non Mendelian inheritance in which a trait was transmitted from the parent to offspring through nonchromosomal, cytoplasmic means. Mitochondria 2. Chloroplast 3. Plasmid 5. Cytoplasmic Inheritance… The acquisition of traits or conditions controlled by self- replicating substances within the cytoplasm, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts.
The phenomenon occurs in plants and some animals but has not been demonstrated in humans. What is in the cytoplasm that could contain DNA??? Most genes are involved in photosynthesis. Endosymbiotic hypothesis: Free living prokaryotes ancestors of chloroplasts and mitochondria invaded plant and animal cells but provide useful function and so a symbiotic relationship developed over time.
Differences in sexes: The transmission of cytoplasm differs between sex cells: — Male contribution: Sperm or pollen transfer little or no cytoplasm to the egg — Female contribution: Egg contributes almost all of the cytoplasm to the zygote Organelle chromosomes: A zygote inherits its organelles from the cytoplasm of the egg Maternal Inheritance: The patterns of inheritance is not associated with meiosis or mitosis because the organelles are in the cytoplasm not in the nucleus.
Organelles have circular chromosomes. Uniparental gene transmission is the maternal inheritance of human mitochondria at fertilization via the egg. For instance, chloroplasts have been found to exhibit maternal, paternal and Biparental modes even within the same species. M sonneborn and his associates. There are two types of kappa particles: 1. Replicating form 2.
Dextral is dominant to sinistral. J Bittner identified extra nuclear factors controlling susceptibility of mice to mammary cancer. Significance of cytoplasmic inheritance… 1. Development of cytoplasmic male sterility several crop plants like maize. Pearl millet, sorghum, cotton etc. Role of mitochondria in the manifestation of heterosis. Height 2. Weight 3. Growth rate in farm animals.
Foot length Continuous variation: Gender male or female 2. Eye color Discontinuous variation: Examples: Examples of an organism's phenotype include traits such as color, height, size, shape and behavior. Phenotypes indicated in the pea pod images to the right include pod color, pod shape, pod size, seed color, seed shape, and seed size.
Qualitative Genetics Quantitative Genetics Characters of kind. Characters of degree. Discontinuous variation; distinct Continuous variation Single gene effects. Polygenic control; effects of single genes too slight to be detected. Concerned with population of organisms consisting all kind of mating. Analyzed by making counts and ratios. Example: round or wrinkled seed of peas Example: skin color in man.
Trangressive variation: The appearance, in a segregating generation, of individuals showing expression of a trait outside the extremes defined by the parent of the cross that was used to generate the population. Modifying Genes: A gene that alters or influences the expression function of another gene including the suppression or reduction of the usual function of the modified gene. Also called modification allele. Intermediate color are produced from having 3 or 2 dominant alleles Examples of polygenetic inheritance… These categories are listed from darkest to lightest in color.
Davenport reported the inheritance of skin color in negro and white populations in U. Mulattoes will be AaBb with intermediate skin color. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips.
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Extranuclear Inheritance: Genetics and Biogenesis of Mitochondria
Progress in Botany pp Cite as. This chapter is a continuation of our previous articles in this series Bauerfeind et al. Research activities and progress in the field of mitochondrial genetics, mitochondrial biogenesis and nuclear-mitochondrial interactions refer to the complete sequence of new mitochondrial genomes, transcription of mitochondrial DNA, processing, editing, and stability of mitochondrial RNA, the import of proteins and RNA, and the characterization of many nuclear genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis. Three topics have been selected to be reviewed here. The mitochondrial DNA of the flagellate Reclinomonas americana may represent a very ancient type of mitochondrial genome and is much more eubacterial-like than any other mitochondrial DNA analyzed so far. Recently, the sequence of the first genes were published and are reviewed here.
Extranuclear inheritance or cytoplasmic inheritance is the transmission of genes that occur outside the nucleus. It is found in most eukaryotes and is commonly known to occur in cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts or from cellular parasites like viruses or bacteria. Mitochondria are organelles which function to transform energy as a result of cellular respiration. Chloroplasts are organelles which function to produce sugars via photosynthesis in plants and algae.
Extranuclear Inheritance- Cytoplasmic Factors and Types