Each text is produced in certain conditions and with different degrees of selection and based on a certain relation with power, and it is available for readers who have different conditions. Analysts believe that there is no null and neuter discourse, because of the lack of pure social fact, but we are faced with discourses or texts belonging to certain people, fractions, ideologies and cultures. Therefore, the text shall be viewed as a meaningful totality while this meaning is not necessarily inside the text itself. Using a deconstructionist view, the author seeks to show the true face of the text of that article as well as reveal the meaning was attached to it at the time of its production. Deconstruction actually shows that each text has two meanings. First is a meaning and understanding which is loyal to the text and shows its one-dimensional determination.

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About this document click for more. Excerpt from article mentioning the exodus of Baha'i intelligentsia from Iran in , and the Baha'is' attempt at underground education.

Email me if you need the rest of this article. At the same time, the newly established Islamic regime began a large-scale crackdown against its political opponents. The main opponents were two guerrilla organizations: the Marxist oriented Feda'ian-e Khalg and the Islamic rooted Mojahedin-e Khalg, which had both greatly contributed to the overthrow of the Shah's regime.

The active members of these organizations fled the country to save their lives. Those who remained went into hiding, but were later arrested, imprisoned, and executed. The continued political oppression and the interference of the Islamic Republic in people's private affairs subsequently pushed a greater number of Iranians to migrate.

The exact number of Iranians who left the country is not known, but some media have stated it to be about 3 million. They were mostly educated elite, political activists, intellectuals, emancipated women, people associated with the previous regime, and members of religious minorities, especially Baha,is and Jews. Some young Iranians also fled the country because of the fear of being drafted to the military for the War with Iraq.

The number of Iranian refugees nevertheless remained high. In the period, Iran was ranked fifth among countries with the highest number of refugees admitted to the US, respectively after Vietnam, the former Soviet Union, Laos, and Cambodia. Iranians also have constituted one of the highest levels of asylum seekers in Europe.

The present population of Iranians abroad is now estimated to be in the range of 1. Many are highly educated, and have advanced degrees from American and Western European universities. Included are many of Iran's best-educated elite, professionals, technocrats, and wealthy entrepreneurs.

Their exodus has caused a severe social loss to Iran. Their knowledge, expertise, and wealth are certainly needed to modernize Iran. Author search. Title search. Date search. Site map. About this document click for more Abstract: Excerpt from article mentioning the exodus of Baha'i intelligentsia from Iran in , and the Baha'is' attempt at underground education.

Notes: Email me if you need the rest of this article.


ISBN 13: 9786005514322

Qajar dynasty. The revolution opened the way for fundamental change in Persia, heralding the modern era. It was a period of unprecedented debate in a burgeoning press, and new economic opportunities. Many groups fought to shape the course of the revolution, and all segments of society were in some way changed by it. The old order, which King Nassereddin Shah Qajar had struggled for so long to sustain, was finally replaced by new institutions, new forms of expression, and a new social and political order. King Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar signed the constitution shortly before his death. He was succeeded by Mohammad Ali Shah , who abolished the constitution and bombarded the parliament in with Russian and British support.


Persian Constitutional Revolution


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