Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. With the objective of studying the anatomopathological alterations in bladder and oesophagus of bovine sent to the abattoir, animals from different cantons of Bolivar province were analyzed. Macroscopic injuries in these organs were classified according to the gravity of lesions and grouped into four categories.
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Histopathological aspects of Bovine Enzootic Hematuria in Brazil. E-mail: ticiana uol. E-mail: claudioslbarros uol. E-mail: tokarnia ufrrj. The objective of this study was to describe and reclassify neoplastic and non-neoplastic alterations not yet reported, according to the more complete current nomenclature used in human medicine. There was an almost complete identity with alterations observed in the bladder of man.
Due to the occurrence of two or more neoplasms in the same animal, differences in the methodology and in the concept of classification, a more precise comparison was not possible. Rare neoplasms or differentiations not previously described were found in the bladder of some animals affected by BEH.
These were trabecular carcinoma with Paneth cells differentiation, mesonephroid adenoma, mesonephroid adenocarcinoma, "signet ring" cell carcinoma, plasmocytoid carcinoma, chromophobe cell carcinoma and nested type of transitional cell carcinoma.
Haemangiosarcomas originating from haemangiomas were also observed. This study also revealed the occurrence of many tumors with anaplasia and pronounced infiltrative features, but which did not metastasize. The elucidation of the cause of this "barrier against metastases" and its relationship with chemical carcinogenesis induced by the ptaquiloside, the active principle of bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum , could be of interest to future research on the control ofneoplasia in man and animals.
Foram verificados hemangiossarcomas proliferando a partir de hemangiomas. Pteridium aquilinum L. Kuhn, a poisonous plant known as bracken fern, has been registered in almost all continents; it has a wide distribution in Brazil.
This plant causes different pathological symptoms , mainly because it contains two different toxic principles: one radiomimetic carcinogenic compound, the norsesquiterpene ptaquiloside Hirono et al. Depending on the period during which the plant is eaten and on the amount ingested Tokarnia et al. The nature of the bladder tumors, associated with the ingestion of P. Epithelial tumors, aswell as mesenchymal tumors have been described, beside the strange capacity to induce different neoplasms in a same animal Tokarnia et al.
Histological examination of new cases of bovine enzootic hematuria revealed several undescribed bladder neoplasms. The aim of this paper is to characterize and to describe histologically neoplastic and non-neoplastic bladder lesions of cattle, not yet reported in scientific papers on BEH.
At the same time, previously described lesions have been reclassified adopting the more complete nomenclature currently used in human medicine. It is hoped that this will call attention to improvements in veterinary pathology.
Appraised cases. Most of the analyzed material was stored in paraffin blocks or already prepared tissues sections. Some old tissue sections were discolored with acetic acid and stained again with hematoxilineosin HE.
The materials in paraffin blocks were cut 5 micrometers thick, stained with HE and submitted to histopathological examination. In some cases special colorations were made by PAS Schiff's reagent , toluidine blue or Masson's trichrome stain for connective tissue.
The tissue sections were examined by optical microscopy. Animals submitted to us for post-mortem examination, had their organs collected immediately after death.
Methodology used for classification and counting of the tumors. As there is no recent and complete histological classification of the bladder tumors of domestic animals in the literature, this study was based on human medical classifications used by the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology of the United States of America AFIP , elaborated by Murphy et al.
Some animals had more than one tumor. Neoplastic processes, visualized separately in a section, without physical proximity, were classified separately.
When the tumors occupied small areas and were of different morphology, distinguishing themselves from most of the neoplasm, these areas were considered as differentiations and not as separate tumors.
The changes found in the bladder of the animals were divided into neoplastic and non-neoplastic; the last ones were subdivided into inflammatory, hyperplastic and metaplastic. The coexistence among them was almost constant, and the frequent simultaneous occurrence of several of them was observed in the same bladder, as can be seen in Tables and Fig.
Due to these miscellaneous lesions, it was frequently difficult or impossible to establish which was the main alteration and the chronological order of emergence of these lesions, as the tumors and the metaplastic alterations seemed to arise, at the same time, on several sites of the mucous membrane.
However, only a few bladder fragments were available from many animals. In some cases there was a clear "differentiation" of one type of tissue into another at the same location. For instance, foci of hyperplastic urothelium with "intestinal" or mesonephroid changes differentiated at the base into carcinoma "in situ" or into "intestinal" adenocarcinoma, sometimes already with a clear infiltrative tendency.
This was also observed in mesenchymal tissues, since part of the hemangiomas and hemangiosarcomas seemed to be related to or originated from focal or multifocal proliferation of small vessels morphologically of normal aspect.
In fact, this last alteration was verified in many of the examinated bladders. In summary, the diversity and the coexistence of the different histological alterationscan be seen in the tables.
The diversity of the neoplasms observed in bovines with BEH is surprising, especially when we consider the small variation in the occurrence of bladder tumors in other species of domestic animals. On the other hand, there is almost a perfect identity with the neoplastic processes that are found in the human bladder. Almost the only significant differences were in the frequency in some processes seen in the bladder of cattle with BEH compared to humans. It is very likely that in human bladder tumors the variability is associated to the three embryonic segments that participate in the formation of the bladder, which are portions of the mesonephric ducts, the mesenchyma that surrounds the urogenital protuberance and the infra-umbilical portion of the abdominal wall Murphy et al.
In fact, embryo-genesis makes it easier to understand the reason for the presence of the neoplastic and metaplastic alterations identical to renal and intestinal tissues in the bladder of cattle and human beings. It would be interesting to verify the exact correlation between the different portions of the bladder in agreement with the embryogenesis and the frequency of the various types of neoplasm. In this study that aspect could not be considered because the whole bladder was only available in a few cases.
Most of the received fragments were collected at random from several parts of the bladder, mainly from areas that presented macroscopic alterations; therefore areas of the bladder without evident macroscopic lesions, but with possible significant microscopic alterations, were excluded from this study.
Even so, why one and the same carcinogenic agent can give origin to different neoplasms in the same animal, is still a mystery. Possibly there is a relationship between the period during which the plant is ingested and the amount of carcinogens contained in the plant in each outbreak. Regarding the incidence of the main neoplasms found in cattle with BEH in our study, it is not easy to make exact comparisons with the data found in the literature. First, because few authors mention the frequency of the different histological types.
This comparison is also very difficult to make because, in many cases, the animals present two or more types of neoplasm. Another problem for the exact determination of the frequency of these neoplasms is the possible variation in the nomenclature used by different pathologists.
This has also been mentioned by Murphy et al. Lesions interpreted as "severe dysplasia" by some authors, were considered as neoplastic by others. In our survey, we also included animals with BEH that presented only non-neoplastic alterations. For this reason we preferred to include cases in which neoplasms were not present. This should be taken into account in the interpretation of the results.
Nevertheless, some of the data found by us are more or less consistent with those in the literature. Additionally we found Though, in another work, Pamukcu et al. In these studies adenomas were rare 3. But the number of epidermoid carcinomas Transitional epithelium neoplasms more or less differentiated are frequent in animals Pamukcu , Pamukcu et al. However, there are some differentiations described as rare or infrequent for humans Murphy et al. For example, neoplastic and metaplastic processes with nephrogenic mesonephroid characteristics can be mentioned.
Beside this we verified intermediate differentiation between urothelial hyperplasia, metaplasia, nephrogenic adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Other authors, however, do not mention or do not believe in the occurrence of nephrogenic adenocarcinomas even in man Murphy et al.
Trabecular carcinoma with Paneth cell differentiation, mesonephroid adenoma, mesonephroid adenocarcinoma, "signet ring"cell carcinoma, plasmocytoid carcinoma, chromophobe cell carcinoma and nested type of transitional carcinoma, although rare in our study, have not yet been described in the bladder of cattle with BEH.
Regarding mesenchymal tumors, we observed a high number of vascular neoplasias In cattle with BEH in Turkey, these indexes were lower In Japan angiomas The coexistence of tumors with elements of epithelial and mesenchymal origin, as well as the concomitance of two or more types of tumors of the same origin, in only one animal, also complicates the attempt to determine the frequency of the neoplasms which occur in BEH.
Pamukcu et al. Maeda observed two or more tumor types in Part of this discrepancy may be due to the criteria of classification or the methodology used. If the computation would be made only on the animals with neoplasias, as apparently used by the authors mentioned above, the percentage in our study would rise to In the cases of BEH with pure epithelial neoplasms including here the cases with two or more epithelial neoplasms we found a percentage of The biological behavior of the alterations that occur in the bladder of animals with BEH is difficult to understand.
For instance: neoplasias with severe anaplasia and evident infiltrative potentiality infiltration in the detrusor muscle and even in the serosa , with vascular invasion, rarely are capable of metastasizing into regional lymph nodes and other organs.
This point had already been mentioned by Tokarnia et al. The most logical explanation is that the local immunological reaction would impede the spread of the neoplasia. This inflammation accompanied several types of benign and maligne tumors, however it was more frequent and intense in more aggressive neoplasias.
On the other hand, diffuse lymphocytic infiltration and formation of lymphoid foci also occurred in bladders without neoplastic processes. Therefore these findings do not allow a simple correlation between this type of inflammation and some metaplastic or specific neoplastic alterations or with a specific protective alteration against tecidual infiltration of the neoplasia or metastases.
Still, we registered cases with unequivocal presence of neoplastic cells in vessels, without signs of distant metastases. The elucidation of the cause s of this "barrier against metastases" and their relationship with the chemical carcinogenesis induced by the ptaquiloside may be of interest in future studies that aim to combat cancer in man and animals.
Eosinophils were also seen in neoplasms, mainly squamous cell carcinomas or areas of squamous differentiation and their presence is correlated with the antigenicity of the keratin present in these tumors Murphy et al. In one case, we observed eosinophilic infiltration of an hemangioma and also under the urothelium together with lymphocytic infiltration We can not explain the presence of the eosinophils in this case.
However as it defines the transition of a morphologically normal tissue into another, it does not seem logical to use it for neoplastic proliferations. The word differentiation seems to us more appropriate. On the other hand, small variations between the different classifications in nomenclature sometimes just reflect a preference for one or other term. For instance, the alteration denominated carcinoma "in situ" by us is classified by some authors as dysplasia degree IV.
Hematuria enzoótica bovina. 
E-mail: louisiane. Urinary bladders from cattle coming from municipalities with the presence of P. Submitted to routine histological processing and ranked them morphologically. Of bovines, The macroscopic lesions included petechia, papillomatous lesions, hemangiomatous lesions, lesions in high relief plate-shaped, and low relief.
Histopathologic characterization of urinary bladders associated with Bovine Enzootic Hematuria