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Spiritual intelligence is a term used by some philosophers , psychologists , and developmental theorists to indicate spiritual parallels with IQ Intelligence Quotient and EQ Emotional Quotient. Danah Zohar coined the term "spiritual intelligence" and introduced the idea in in her book ReWiring the Corporate Brain. In the same year, , Ken O'Donnell, an Australian author and consultant living in Brazil, also introduced the term "spiritual intelligence" in his book Endoquality - the emotional and spiritual dimensions of the human being in organizations.
In , in the book Spiritual Intelligence , author Steven Benedict outlined the concept as a perspective offering a way to bring together the spiritual and the material, that is ultimately concerned with the well-being of the universe and all who live there.
Howard Gardner , the originator of the theory of multiple intelligences , chose not to include spiritual intelligence in his "intelligences" due to the challenge of codifying quantifiable scientific criteria. So far, measurement of spiritual intelligence has tended to rely on self-assessment instruments, which can be susceptible to false or unreliable reporting. Variations of spiritual intelligence are sometimes used in corporate settings, as a means of motivating employees.
Definitions of spiritual intelligence rely on the concept of spirituality as being distinct from religiosity - existential intelligence. Danah Zohar defined 12 principles underlying spiritual intelligence: . IQ helps us to interact with numbers, formulas and things, EQ helps us to interact with people and SQ helps us to maintain inner balance.
To calculate one's level of SQ he suggests the following criteria:. Robert Emmons defines spiritual intelligence as "the adaptive use of spiritual information to facilitate everyday problem solving and goal attainment. The fifth capacity was later removed due to its focus on human behavior rather than ability, thereby not meeting previously established scientific criteria for intelligence.
Frances Vaughan offers the following description: "Spiritual intelligence is concerned with the inner life of mind and spirit and its relationship to being in the world. Cindy Wigglesworth defines spiritual intelligence as "the ability to act with wisdom and compassion, while maintaining inner and outer peace, regardless of the circumstances. The four quadrants of spiritual intelligence are defined as:. David B. King has undertaken research on spiritual intelligence at Trent University in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada.
King defines spiritual intelligence as a set of adaptive mental capacities based on non-material and transcendent aspects of reality, specifically those that:. Also, Vineeth V. Kumar and Manju Mehta have also researched the concept, extensively.
Operationalizing the construct, they defined spiritual intelligence as "the capacity of an individual to possess a socially relevant purpose in life by understanding 'self' and having a high degree of conscience, compassion and commitment to human values.
Measurement of spiritual intelligence relies on self-reporting. David King and Teresa L. The idea behind the development of this scale was to generate and assess the concept of spiritual intelligence in the collectivist culture bounded with eastern philosophy. The SSI is rated on a Likert scale and can be completed in 10 minutes.
The normal group was people, of whom were the students of Gorgan University of Natural Resources and 80 students of Payame Noor University of Behshahr. Of these, were female and 96 were male. First, a item questionnaire was prepared by the test developers and implemented on 30 students. The reliability of the test in the initial phase was 0. In the analysis of the question by Loop method, 12 questions were removed and the final questionnaire was adjusted with 29 phrases.
At the final stage, the questionnaire was implemented on subjects and the reliability was 0. Factor analysis was used to evaluate validity in addition to formal content validity that the questions were confirmed by the experts colleagues and the correlation of all questions was higher than 0. In Varimax rotation, two major factors were found to reduce variables.
It has been argued that Spiritual Intelligence cannot be recognized as a form of intelligence. Howard Gardner , originator of multiple intelligence theory , chose not to include spiritual intelligence amongst his intelligences due to the challenge of codifying quantifiable scientific criteria. Thus, an explicit concern with spiritual or religious matters would be one variety — often the most important variety — of an existential intelligence.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Brazil: Casa da Qualidade. Spring , , Sage Publications. Gaining adaptive orientation through spiritual and emotional intelligence. Nathawat Eds. Delhi: Macmillan Publishers India. Scale for Spiritual Intelligence [Electronic Database]. Spiritual Intelligence: Concepts, Measurements and its Applications. Tehran: Ravansanji Publications. Categories : Popular psychology Pseudoscience.
QS - Inteligência Espiritual