The modern notion of sexuality took shape at the end of the nineteenth century, especially in the works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Albert Moll. This modernisation of sexuality was closely linked to the recognition of sexual diversity, as it was articulated in the medical—psychiatric understanding of what, at that time, was labelled as perversion. From around , psychiatrists shifted the focus from immoral acts, a temporary deviation of the norm, to an innate morbid condition. In the late nineteenth century, several psychiatrists, collecting and publishing more and more case histories, classified and explained the wide range of deviant sexual behaviours they traced. The emergence of medical sexology meant that perversions could be diagnosed and discussed. Against this background both Krafft-Ebing and Moll articulated a new perspective, not only on perversion, but also on sexuality in general.
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Krafft-Ebing was born in in Mannheim , Germany, studied medicine at the University of Heidelberg , where he specialized in psychiatry. He later practiced in psychiatric asylums.
After leaving his work in asylums, he pursued a career in psychiatry, forensics , and hypnosis. He died in Graz in He was recognized as an authority on deviant sexual behavior and its medicolegal aspects. The last edition from the hand of the author the twelfth contained a total of case histories of human sexual behaviour.
Translations of various editions of this book introduced to English such terms as " sadist " derived from the brutal sexual practices depicted in the novels of the Marquis de Sade ,  " masochist ", derived from the name of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch ,  " homosexuality ",  " necrophilia ",  and " anilingus ".
Psychopathia Sexualis is a forensic reference book for psychiatrists, physicians, and judges. Written in an academic style, its introduction noted that, to discourage lay readers , the author had deliberately chosen a scientific term for the title of the book and that he had written parts of it in Latin for the same purpose.
It proposed consideration of the mental state of sex criminals in legal judgements of their crimes. During its time, it became the leading medico—legal textual authority on sexual pathology.
The twelfth and final edition of Psychopathia Sexualis presented four categories of what Krafft-Ebing called " cerebral neuroses ":. The term "hetero-sexual" is used, but not in chapter or section headings. The term "bi-sexuality" appears twice in the 7th edition, and more frequently in the 12th.
There is no mention of sexual activity with children in Chapter III, General Pathology , where the "cerebral neuroses" including sexuality the paraesthesias are covered.
Various sexual acts with children are mentioned in Chapter IV, Special Pathology , but always in the context of specific mental disorders, such as dementia, epilepsy, and paranoia, never as resulting from its own disorder. However, Chapter V on sexual crimes has a section on sexual crimes with children. This section is brief in the 7th edition, but is expanded in the 12th to cover Non-Psychopathological Cases and Psychopathological Cases , in which latter subsection the term paedophilia erotica is used.
Krafft-Ebing considered procreation the purpose of sexual desire and that any form of recreational sex was a perversion of the sex drive. In some cases, homosexual libido was classified as a moral vice induced by the early practice of masturbation. Although the primary focus is on sexual behavior in men, there are sections on Sadism in Woman , Masochism in Woman , and Lesbian Love. Several of the cases of sexual activity with children were committed by women.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Austrian neurologist, psychiatrist, and nobleman. This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German. October Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia.
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The Cambridge Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed. Columbia University Press. Retrieved 19 July — via Questia. Psychoanalysis and History. Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Press.
September Retrieved 16 July Subscription or UK public library membership required. Categories : births deaths Barons of Austria Austrian psychiatrists German psychiatrists Austrian sexologists German sexologists Sexual orientation and medicine History of psychiatry 19th-century Austrian writers 19th-century German writers Heidelberg University alumni LGBT history in Germany.
Richard von Krafft-Ebing
One of the most influential figures in the history of human sexuality, Richard Freiherr von Krafft-Ebing was the first scientist to undertake a major study of sexual perversity in its varied forms. He chose psychiatry as his area of primary interest, and became a professor of psychiatry at the Universities of Strasbourg He soon relocated to the University of Graz, where, from to , he served as medical superintendent of the Feldhof mental asylum, which served more as a prison than a hospital. Krafft-Ebing crusaded for reform of this overcrowded facility without success , and was convinced of the importance of diagnosis, analysis and treatment of mental illness. In , he published Text-Book of Insanity , which further encouraged doctors to explore the cause of a patient's mental illness be it hereditary, sexual, or physical. He promoted therapy, rather than simple imprisonment.
Sexual Modernity in the Works of Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Albert Moll
First published in in German with the subtitle "with Special Reference to the Antipathic Sexual Instinct: A Medico-Forensic Study", the book details a wide range of paraphilias , with a special emphasis on male homosexuality the "antipathic instinct" of the subtitle. Krafft-Ebing also coined the terms sadism and masochism in the book. The Psychopathia Sexualis is notable for being one of the earliest works on homosexuality. The book was controversial at the time, arousing the anger of the church in particular. The book had a considerable influence on continental European forensic psychiatry in the first part of the 20th century. It is regarded as the bible of psychopathology.