In Japan, minimum temperature in a reservoir with mussels was 4. Consumes a variety of phytoplankton and zooplankton Rojas Molina et al. Adults do well despite low food availability Oliveira et al. Limnoperna fortunei negatively effects burrowing invertebrates and unionids Karatayev et al. Limnoperna fortunei negatively impacts zooplankton, and part of zooplankton decline may be due to starvation i. Limnoperna fortunei has increased food availability in the benthic zone, which in part has increased invertebrate excluding mussels density 1.
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Limnoperna fortunei , the golden mussel , is a medium-sized freshwater bivalve mollusc of the family Mytilidae. The native range of the species is China, but it has accidentally been introduced to South America and several Asian countries where it has become an invasive species. It is considered to be an ecosystem engineer because it alters the nature of the water and the bottom habitats of lakes and rivers and modifies the associated invertebrate communities.
It also has strong effects on the properties of the water column, modifying nutrient proportions and concentrations, increasing water transparency, decreasing phytoplankton and zooplankton densities, on which it feeds, and enhancing the growth of aquatic macrophytes. Because mussels attach to hard substrata, including the components of industrial, water-treatment and power plants, they have become a major biofouling problem in the areas invaded.
The larvae of the golden mussel are small around micrometers , and live in the water column until they are ready to settle. The outer surface of the shell is golden to dark brown, whereas internally it is nacreous, pearly white to purple. The valves are very thin and brittle, and there are no hinge teeth.
The mantle is fused on the dorsal side and between the exhalant siphon and the inhalant aperture. Water enters the mussel's mantle cavity through the inhalant aperture, and after describing a series of movements during which suspended particles are filtered out and either ingested, digested in the gut, and the undigested remains egested as feces, or discarded as pseudofeces, is expelled through the exhalant siphon.
These water currents are also used for respiration and for discarding excretion waste products. The shell attaches to hard substrates by byssal threads, forming beds of closely packed animals. Internally, a series of muscles attached to the valves are responsible for its closure, retraction of the byssus, and movements of the foot  . Limnoperna fortunei is dioecious, with approximately equal numbers of males and females and very small proportions of hermaphrodites. The golden mussel's life span is around 2 years.
Growth is fastest during the summer, decreasing sharply in winter. Growth rates and final size depend largely on water temperature and the time of the year when the individuals are born, although calcium concentrations, pollution, food availability and intraspecific competition may play important roles as well.
Its presence in Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam is probably the result of historical human migrations. The mussel needs hard substrata for settling, like rocks, wood, floating and submerged plants, mussel shells, crustaceans, etc. Although it cannot live on fine loose sediments, muddy areas stabilized by roots or fibrous debris are also occasionally colonized.
Settlement of new recruits is higher in established mussel beds than elsewhere, and juveniles often attach to larger shells, but eventually move deeper towards the substrate. The golden mussel is a filter-feeder. Adult individuals process around 1 liter of water every 10 hours,  retaining organic particles, including phytoplankton and zooplankton, and egesting or rejecting unwanted materials in mucous strands that settle on the bottom.
The effects of this process on the water column include the decrease of suspended particles, water column primary production, and the concomitant increase in water transparency. Benthic organisms and those that feed on detritus in general, including many fish species, benefit from this additional source of energy. Benthic invertebrates, in particular, are usually more diverse and abundant in mussel beds than elsewhere.
In South America, adult L. This diet has been shown to significantly improve fish growth, especially during the earliest developmental stages. The evidence of whether these impacts are positive or negative for the ecosystems invaded is mixed and debatable. This issue is further complicated by the fact that the same forcing can have opposite results.
For example, while the provision of organic matter from the mussel's feces and pseudofeces and the protection conveyed by its colonies can enhance the abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrates, this extra load of organic matter can also deplete near-bottom oxygen levels, thus decreasing the abundance and diversity of benthic invertebrates.
As opposed to its effects on the environment, those on man-made structures are clearly negative. The mussel has caused severe fouling problems in both Asia and in South America. The facilities affected include power plants nuclear, hydroelectric, thermal , water and wastewater processing plants, refineries, steel mills, fish culture installations, water transfer canals and aqueducts, watercraft, agricultural irrigation systems, balancing reservoirs and balancing tanks.
The plant components that are most commonly fouled by the mussels are pipes, heat exchangers and condensers, strainers, filters, trash racks, grates, screens, penstocks, pumps, nozzles, and sprinklers, vent lines, and air release valves, fire protection equipment, grit chambers, flocculators, holding ponds, storage tanks, pump suction chambers, pump wells, water intake tunnels, pump and turbine shafts, seals, and wear rings, boat engines cooling water ducts, filters, pumps and submerged rudder and propulsion components, sand filtration systems, submerged monitoring instrumentation, and level gauges.
The problems involved include clogging by living mussels or by dead, dislodged shells, pressure loss, overheating, corrosion, abrasion and wear, jamming of moving components, sealing failures, deterioration of metal, concrete and other materials, and sediment accumulation.
Fouling by L. Nevertheless, operation at below-standard regimes and even temporary plant shutoffs have often been reported. Numerous fouling control methods have been proposed and tested, either in laboratory conditions only, or in actual operating environments. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Dunker, . World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved Limnoperna Fortunei.
Springer, Cham. Journal of Shellfish Research. Journal of Molluscan Studies. Limnoperna Fortunei PDF. Landscape and Ecological Engineering. Freshwater Biology. Molluscan Research. Check List.
Aquatic Invasions. Aquatic Invaders. Management of Biological Invasions. Biological Invasions. Journal of Limnology. Aquatic Sciences. Aquatic Ecology. Journal of the American Water Works Association. Ecological Engineering. Categories : Mytilidae Bivalves described in Hidden categories: Articles with 'species' microformats Commons category link from Wikidata.
Principal source: Dr. La Plata, Argentina. Limnoperna fortunei. Full account PDF. Limnoperna fortunei or golden mussel is an epifaunal mytilid, native to Chinese and south-eastern Asian rivers and creeks. It became established in Hong Kong in , and in Japan and Taiwan in the 's.
It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This book summarizes all currently available information on the ecology, environmental impacts and control methods of the golden mussel in industrial plants. The golden mussel was introduced in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and South America between and , swiftly spreading in freshwater waterbodies. In most areas invaded it has become the dominant macroinverebrate and a major fouling pest of industrial plants.
It became established in Hong Kong in and in Japan and Taiwan in the s. In , it invaded America throu It has several invasive characteristics such as gregariousness, rapid growth, short life span; it has a planktonic larval stage, and great adaptive and reproductive capacity. It modifies the presence and abundance of native macro invertebrate fauna, fish diets, and their high filtration rates cause environmental impact, changing ecological conditions in the areas colonized. It causes great economic damage to water intakes and cooling systems. L imnoperna fortunei has been cited under a variety of names Morton, ; Ricciardi,